In recent years, the global networking industry has seen a rapid rise in the size of the market, rising from $1.9 trillion in 2013 to $3.2 trillion in 2016. The development of IoT industry is closely related to the number of available connections. By 2020, the number of global connections is expected to reach 26 billion (smartphone 9 billion, wearable equipment 10 billion, $literal 7 billion) and the potential market size will exceed US $7 trillion. The following network communication with a small section to understand the relevant content.
At present, the spatial pattern of China's IoT industry has formed four industrial agglomeration areas, namely, the Bohai Sea, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the central and western regions of Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Chongqing. Because China has the world's largest electronic consumer market and industrial scale, the internet of things in China has a bright future. In 2014, the market scale of China's IoT industry reached 600 billion yuan, it is expected to reach 1.5 trillion yuan by 2018, and the annual compound growth rate is over 25%.
The concept of IoT was first introduced in 1999. The "Automatic Identification Center (AUTO-ID)", established at MIT, first proposed that "everything can be interconnected through the Internet" and clarify the basic meaning of IoT. The early internet of Things is only a network that relies on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to achieve physical and material connections. With the development of technology and application, the connotation of IoT has changed greatly.
On November 17, 2005, in Tunis, the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, Global Summit on the Information Society), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU, International Telecommunications Union) of the concept of the Internet of things identified: through two-dimensional code reading equipment, RF identification devices, infrared sensors, The Global positioning system and the laser scanner and other information sensing equipment, according to the agreed agreement, to connect any goods with the Internet, the exchange of information and communications to achieve intelligent identification, positioning, tracking, monitoring and management of a network.
It should be pointed out that the Internet is not a separate network, but the expansion and extension on the basis of existing networks. Like the Internet and mobile Internet through PCs, tablets, smartphones have realized the interconnection between people, the future will be able to achieve all hardware interconnection. Therefore, in a nutshell, the Internet of Things is the process of networking and intellectualization of any objective object on the basis of the original network.
If the first generation of Internet technology is to achieve the interconnection between computers and successfully build a virtual online world, the second generation of Internet technology is through the mobile Internet to achieve the interconnection between people, then the future of Internet technology to achieve is the interconnection of all items, completely open the virtual world and the real world barrier.
In recent years, the global networking industry has seen a rapid rise in the size of the market, rising from $1.9 trillion in 2013 to $3.2 trillion in 2016. The development of IoT industry is closely related to the number of available connections. The current global available connections are about 9 billion, with less than half of the Internet connections. By 2020, the number of global connections is expected to reach 26 billion (smartphone 9 billion, wearable equipment 10 billion, $literal 7 billion) and the potential market size will exceed US $7 trillion.
The Internet of Things covers all aspects of the national economy, of which nine of the main application areas are the largest, namely: Smart cars, including unmanned driving and car networking, intelligent cities, including public health and transportation; Intelligent logistics, including intellectual transport and business navigation, and so on; Smart care, including the support of health and fitness, etc., intelligent office, including the operation of the optimization and operation of safety; smart retailing, including automatic billing, etc. intelligent factory, which includes intelligence operation and equipment optimization Including the energy Internet, smart families, including household automation and family security.
The establishment of IoT is inseparable from the popularization of sensor applications. In recent years, the new hardware of the built-in sensors has come into the stacks. From Vr/ar-wearing equipment, smart bracelet, smart watches to unmanned cars, drones, industrial Internet, a new intelligent world is coming for us. Although these new hardware sales are not large enough, are independent network connections, and some can even be said to be "useless", but this means that the sensor's subnet dot-like expansion has begun. In time, all kinds of hardware subnets converged into a large network can be expected. With the improvement of the basic network capacity and the intellectualization of various equipments, the IoT industry will usher in the rapid development period in the coming years.
The objects can be divided into three categories, government, enterprise and consumer, and the diverse applications are derived from these three groups, creating great social value.
1. Government-oriented Internet applications cover public resources management, intelligent transportation, safe cities, intelligent government and so on. At present, China, the United States and other major governments of the demand for Internet access is mainly to solve the increasingly tense energy consumption, pollution problems, urban security issues, so the future of intelligent transportation, smart meter reading, intelligent street lights and other related applications in urban life will be the focus of development.
For example, the Swedish Government's implementation of the smart traffic plan is to get the electronic license plate on the car, connect with the large traffic data platform, realize the real-time intelligent traffic management and congestion charge, and have achieved remarkable results. Traffic congestion in the Stockholm region dropped by 20%-25%, traffic queues fell 30%-50%, emission reductions 2.5%, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions fell 40%.
2. Enterprise-oriented networking applications include industrial networking, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Enterprises can connect the equipment to the cloud for unified management, and from the manufacturing, logistics, sales, after-sale data to find to improve operational efficiency, reduce costs, improve sales and other important business issues.
For example, by using GE's remote diagnostic probes, spring and Autumn airlines saved more than $210,000 in annual maintenance costs, and avoided several unplanned engines for disassembly and grounding; the wind turbine maker Vestas has been able to improve the layout of wind turbines in a timely manner by cross-referencing data collected by weather data and customer turbine instrumentation, thus increasing the power output level of wind turbines and extending service deadlines.
In the future, industrial networking can evolve further through machine learning to solve problems. For example, able cloud through 3 months of machine learning training water dispenser automatic heating, insulation and power outages, reached the water dispenser in the "learn" to meet the needs of office staff drinking water, but also save 30% of energy.
3. Consumer-oriented networking involves car networking, wearable equipment, smart home and complex entertainment. At present, the vehicle network to navigation, remote information collection, vehicle system upgrades.
In the future with the car entertainment system, ADAS, unmanned driving popularization, onboard smart hardware is expected to achieve integrated network management. In the intelligent community and smart home areas, community and peace families are expected to take the lead in achieving breakthroughs. The original residential district video surveillance system can be extended to the object network platform, combined with home sensors, wearable equipment, community access management system, for modern community management to provide infrastructure solutions. In the event of an illegal invasion, fire, gas leakage and other unusual circumstances, the intelligent sensor will send the alarm signal, and through the family Center will signal to the residential property Management Center, Alarm center and residents mobile phone, notify the security personnel rushed to the scene to deal with.
The industrial chain of IoT is composed of perceptual layer, network layer and application layer.
1. Perceptual layer: Mainly includes the information perception, the recognition object gathers the information, is the thing network to identify the object and the information source, also is its upstream industry. The perceptual layer is composed of a variety of semiconductor sensing devices and their network grids, consisting of sensors, bar codes, RFID tags and satellite positioning systems. The perceptual layer is a competitive field. Because of the different applications in various industries, the demand for sensor and terminal equipment is very wide, and the higher demand for product production is also put forward.
2. Network layer: The main realization of the Internet data transmission and processing perceptual layer access to information, is the internet of things in the middle of the industry. The network includes Internet, LAN, metropolitan area Network, extranet, network system platform and so on. Network layer belongs to oligopoly competition, its monopoly is not only embodied in its construction process, but also shows different degree of monopoly in its operation.
3. Application layer: This level is the application system of IoT, the main role is to connect the Internet and terminals, realize the real meaning of the virtual world and the physical world of seamless connection to achieve a veritable object connected to the world, is the downstream industry of IoT. The application layer is an industrial organization model with a large market difference and a high market segmentation. This area is primarily geared towards SME, family and personal services, including diversified service patterns and personalized services. The operation of the user is more decentralized, so the application of Internet in this field is very different, and the service market is subdivided.
In view of the development trend, the growth path of the three major areas of the IoT industry chain is not consistent. The perceptual layer has limited potential in traditional areas. According to Gartner, the 2019 IoT semiconductor industry market will reach $43.5 billion trillion. Among them, the processing equipment market scale of 24.8 billion U.S. dollars, sensor market scale of $10 billion, communications chip market scale of $8.6 billion. In the sensor, RFID and other fields, domestic manufacturers have not entered the high-end market, lack of competition barriers lead to their future profit window shorter period, such as can not cut into the high-end field, the future growth potential is limited.
From the present perspective, there is a great space for the development of intelligent knowledge in the perceptual layer. In the future, the popularization of miniaturization of smart equipment will bring about the change of interactive mode, and the intelligent recognition, which is represented by image and speech recognition, will become the mainstream data collection method of IoT. In the network layer operator dividend is bigger. The advantages of the current ubiquitous cellular network technology are real-time, security, compatibility and mobility, while the advantages of Wi-Fi technology are lower cost. In the future, Wi-Fi and cellular technology will increasingly move towards a collaborative application model, and both technologies may become part of the 5G honeycomb standard that is expected to be used in 2020. Regardless of which technology is used, the operator's scale dividend is hard to shake in the short term.
In the application layer, the platform of IoT is expected to become the core of industrial chain. With the large-scale application of IoT in different scenarios, the data of perceptual layer is more and more large, the data type is more and more rich, the data structure will be more and more complex, the importance of data analysis will be more and more obvious. At this time, the benefits of clustering resources, building ecology, and participate in the application of tiered networking platform will continue to appear.
At present, the internet giants and start-up companies directly layout platform field. In the field of platform services, large-scale internet, IT companies due to a solid accumulation of funds, a broad